Final Project – Week 8/9/10/11/12

Completely forgot about the blogs, however my final project is almost completed. I have finished writing up about these areas:

3.1 Audiovisual Composition

In regards to this investigation, I have created my own audiovisual composition using different pieces of code-based digital art. This is in regards to the aim to see if video can be used as medium to correctly convey Code-Based Digital Art. As a lot of Code-Based Digital Art gives off an ambient vibe, I decided to base this composition around this genre; as such the music and the visuals compliment this.

I sourced the materials needed for this online, and used a relevant song that I created awhile ago to fit in with the same genre of the piece. Making sure that the visuals and the audio correspond with each other was a key task of this project, allowing the project to retain a certain level of consistency.

3.2 Editing Processes used

Due to not knowing an awful lot about coding, I can expand on Code-Based Digital Art by video manipulation via postproduction techniques. In this project I have used the following editing techniques:

Synchronization: This is an editing technique used a lot in music videos, where the beat of the song will sync to the tempo of the visuals in the pacing of the cuts or other editing processes. (Chion, Gorbman and Murch, 1994) state this about one of the most important techniques in a medium such as a music video:

‘Of course, the main reason music videos can function at all is because of the elementary relation between soundtrack and visual track; the two are not wholly independent from each other. But this relation is often limited to points of synchronization, where the image matches the production of sound in some way. The rest of the time each goes its separate way.’

Some notable music videos and media that have implemented this technique are an animated musical opera called Metalocalypse: The Doomstar Requiem, in scenes such as the final scene where the snare hit coincides with imagery of a chain. This technique is also used a lot in other various music videos from the fictional band Dethklok, such as music videos as Dethklok – Awaken, where lyrics appear on the screen whilst they are being chanted, and Dethklok – The Gears, where the imagery is synced up to the rhythm guitar in the verse.

Colour Correction/Use of filters: Throughout the postproduction of this project, I have used filters to enable editing the visuals of this project. Filters are simply applied to edit which of the colours will be most prominent in that cut of the file. I simply used the slice tool to separate clips, and then applied different filters to each slice. A popular filter is monochrome, which is the black and white filter, simulating black and white televisions. Monochrome is used in music videos such as Amy Winehouse – Back to Black and Justin Timberlake – Suit & Tie.

Overlay/Superimposition: A technique that involves two or more clips. The opacity is adjusted on the clips, allowing them to both become visible at the same time. (MMI-2 International Research, 2016) show this in their video demonstration on what an overlay actually is, showing a clip of a line graph superimposed over video clips in the background.

3.3 Project categorised into an art genre

As this project uses a lot of different media and compounds them together, this project would most likely fall under the genre of multimedia art. This project combines music, code-based digital art and video editing techniques to create this composition, meaning a range of media and mediums where used, hence the term multimedia art.

3.4 Multimedia Art

So what exactly is multimedia art? If we break down the name of the genre, multi indicates many and media indicates the use of media and mediums used. (, 2014) gives this in-depth definition of multimedia art:

‘Multimedia art is an innovative discipline which seeks to unify a large range of art forms. This is creatively achieved by combining an array of artistic insights and crafts such as film, literature, performance, music and sound, drama, visual arts, or design. This merge of ideas and forms unveils a contemporary dimension or entity which attempts to engage an audience in a novel and unique way.’

This project clearly falls under this definition of multimedia art, due to the use of visual arts, the use of sound, the use of video and the attempt to capture the audience in a unique way, unlike the individual components wouldn’t be able to do if they where singular, whereas the effect is different whilst combined.

This definition also gives us a clue about the aesthetics or principals of multimedia art, in the fact that different disciplines of art are needed to create these kinds of pieces, and that they need to have a completely different effect when combined than when they are singular and individualistic.

  1. Summary

As this project was an investigation into the aesthetics of code-based digital art, there was a lot of research required to complete, along with an audiovisual composition to investigate whether a knowledge of coding is actually needed to not only adjust the visuals, but to expand on the piece itself.

The project had a set number of aims. First, the definition of what code-based digital art actually is was successfully broken down and defined. Next was an investigation into different genres of code-based digital art and what they entail. Although 6 genres are named, there is many more similar subgenres that haven’t been defined, and the most prominent genres of code-based digital art where outlined. This is due to quite similar traits in the genres and they would share many of the above aforementioned genres. As such, a detailed overview wouldn’t be entirely necessary.

Accompanying this investigation into the aesthetics of code-based digital art, was an audiovisual composition, the point of this being whether it was possible to expand on code-based digital art was possible. The results of this show that it is indeed possible, via the use of video editing techniques to expand upon the work of the pieces in question, however this provides a shift in genre from code-based digital art, to multimedia art.

In conclusion, this project is overall a success. The main criticisms of this project are the fact the other subgenre’s that have similar traits, such as systems art, which is similar to generative and evolutionary art, do not have a detailed overview, due to the similarities that it contains. Another criticism of this project is that the audiovisual composition contains a genre shift from code-based digital art to multimedia art. However this is a double-edged sword, it shows that the pieces in question have definitely been expanded on, however, it is no longer entirely code based due to the shift in medium it was presented in, in this case, video. This criticism is more subjective than fact, and is therefore just a matter of perspective.

Although this project has its flaws, it has still met the aims that it endeavoured to meet, as such; I consider this investigation to be a success.

I completed a table of contents as well and reformatted my essay slightly, just to tidy it up.

I also have completed the following drafts of my audiovisual composition

Draft 2

With this draft I tried to include more genres of code-based digital art, however I believe it came out much weaker as the clips didn’t mesh well together.

Draft 3

With this draft I tried a more simplistic approach, as such, Another draft may be required due to the project seeming a bit repetitive, and a further draft may allow the composition to flow better.



Final Project – Week 7, Easter Break 1 + 2

Over these 3 weeks I have looked at a number of different topics that are relevant to my investigation. Below each title is the draft that I have created for each topic, and in the title how they are related to this project.

Video Games – New Media Art

Video games are still hold a question mark over their status as an art form. Hideo Kojima, the creator, writer and director of the Metal Gear Solid series, states:

But videogames aren’t trying to capture one person. A videogame should make sure that all 100 people that play that game should enjoy the service provided by that videogame. It’s something of a service. It’s not art. But I guess the way of providing service with that videogame is an artistic style, a form of art.’

In some sense, Art is something that invokes emotion into the recipient, as such is the method of musical compositions, film and other traditional styles, as such some video games have catered to this in terms of plot points and interactions. Some notable examples include Final Fantasy VII, where the death of a major character occurs to drive the story forward and to invoke emotion and That Dragon, Cancer, a game made by a couple who share their experiences of the loss of their five year old son who lost a battle against terminal cancer.

(Yes I know I’ll fix that in-text referencing)

Glitch Art – A genre of code-based digital art

Glitch Art is a form of Digital Art that uses deliberate errors to create art. This is done in various different methods. Methods such as creating errors in the code, deleting parts of the code or using other physical methods, such as circuit bending.

Circuit bending is the practice of modifying the circuits of various objects such as electronic toys, instruments, monitors, etc. via the use of soldering and creative short-circuiting.

As such some artists such as Aether Jag use this technique in live audio performances whereas others such as Age use circuit bending in a more compositional sense. Circuit bending like anything, has pros and cons. A reason why anyone would circuit bending is that it is very simple, and that you don’t need to know much about electronics. (Ghazala, 2005) has stated this about the knowledge of electronics needed:

‘So relax. We won’t be getting into scary theory here. You don’t need it. As far as electronics goes, you’ll be finger painting. Nonetheless, you’ll be building some of the most interesting music engines on the planet.’

However an argument against circuit bending would be that not only could you harm the piece of equipment, you can also cause harm to yourself if you are not careful, depending on the nature of the modification you are making.

In terms of visuals provided by circuit bending, the modifications made to the circuit, perform a heavy glitching effect, thereby placing it under the banner of glitch art. An example of this type of work was when CaspersElectronics video bended a Super Nintendo Entertainment System, a gaming console. See figure ??

Glitch Art revolves around a Japanese worldview called Wabi-Sabi. This worldview essentially embraces the idea that there is beauty in ugliness. (Gold, 2004) describes Wabi-Sabi as: “the wisdom and beauty of imperfection.”

As Glitch Art evolves around the aesthetic of self-made errors, artists have came up with creative ways to use Glitch Art for design purposes, A glitch artist named Soliel Zumbrunn created a set of playing cards that have been designed with a glitch aesthetic, see figure ??.

(More to add to this chapter)

I also have chapters on my own project, however I am currently just waiting on feedback from my supervisors, just to check if these chapters are relevant. I will add them below just to show my thoughts.

How this is a different art form

The process of creating this project is bringing together several different art forms and unifying them through a different medium. This is different from most works of art, due to the fact of the multitudinous forms of art that has been brought together. Although there are works of art like collages of different pictures used to create another image, such as John Lijo Bluefish – Grace of Monaco, see figure ??, this is more advanced in the sense that the original art works have been changed via the process of editing along.

If this is indeed a new form of art, then it should be called Amalgamated Art. This is due to the definition of Amalgamated, which describes the process for this genre of art. Definition of amalgamate from (, 2016)

‘Verb (used with object), amalgamated, amalgamating. mix or merge so as to make a combination; blend; unite; combine:

to amalgamate two companies.’

This definition supports the process of Amalgamated Art, with amalgamate in past tense here due to the process being completed, as each piece that was brought together was already a form of art in itself.

Aesthetics of Amalgamated Art

If Amalgamated Art is a new genre of digital art, we will first have to outline the rules and principals of said genre. The following should be used as an outline when creating Amalgamated Art.

  1. A new medium must be used rather than one currently used, to display the piece, for example, video cannot be used if a piece you are using is a video, it could however be converted into code or sound and presented in that sense.
  2. Each piece used for your own project must be a piece of art in itself. Such as sound or imagery.
  3. You must edit at least one of the pieces you are unifying, in some shape and form.

As this the process I used in my investigation into if video was a viable medium to showcase code-based digital art, I believe these to be the main principals of Amalgamated Art.

(I also have a chapter on the criticisms of Amalgamated Art, however its rather fragmented at the moment, due to needing to look through notes from first year from one of my modules, as I cannnot remember something from that module that is very relevant to this project)

I have started chapters such as Interactive Art and have talked a little about the Arduino, however I need to further read up on Arduino, Max/MSP, Pure Data, Processing, Open Framworks, l-CubeX and everything else that makes Interactive Art, possible.

Also as a side note, when I state see figure ??, it means I have put an appendix in, and havn’t put it in order until I believe I have all of my appendices in this essay.

Final Project – Week 6

Essay Writing

For this week, I have continued writing my essay, and have listed the aims in the intro/abstract part of the essay.

Screen Shot 2016-03-05 at 14.14.05

This allows me to edit the structure of my essay to compliment what I wish to accomplish with my essay. After having another look through of my essay, I am going to add in a sub section on editing, and will talk about how my video was edited and why I used certain techniques instead of others. A basic thing to add, and should definitely be in my essay, something I completely overlooked when designing my structure of my essay.

The essay writing classes/workshops that the university provides, has really helped my essay along, and although I’m only really starting it, I am constantly thinking about things to add into it, which means I won’t be stuck for what to write. The problem is defining all of the different art forms and wading through various sources of information to find something relevant to what I need for my essay, as sub-genres of digital art is quite a niche area.

So far in terms of how much I have completed of the essay, I have completed the intro/abstract part, however I will need to talk to my supervisors about this due to a few niggles that need ironed out, defining digital art, defining code-based art, some of the generative art section, a tiny bit of the evolutionary art section, and have started building up references to reiterate my points.

Practical Editing

I have also edited around a minute of footage for the practical side of this project, However I am finding that I will need a lot more footage to add diversity to the shots, in order to add more of a progressive flow to the project.

Also I will need to spend more time for editing due to the vision of the way I want this project edited. I would like the project to be visually rhythmically edited to the song, meaning I will make use of techniques such as Jump-cuts to make this possible.

An example of a rhythmically edited music video can be found here: New Order – True Faith

As most rhythmically edited music videos are usually edited to the percussion, I would like to try something different, and edit the video to perhaps the lead synth in the song, however I will need to be careful with time constraints due to the fact that the editing will have a bigger workload for this progression, due to the fact the video will have to be edited quicker. By a quicker edit, I simply mean by the fact that the visuals have alot quicker cuts. It may be simpler to show, than rather try to explain:

Fast vs Slow Cutting

(Side note, I actually think that this tutorial is poorly edited, due to the fact that they added music into the faster and slower edits, to further convey their point, making the music ‘cue’ you into stimulating some kind of reaction with in you, which wouldn’t be as great if it was only pure visuals. Also, they have that weird american editing in the video, such as the cheesey intro visuals, which makes them seem like they are perpetually stuck in the 1990’s using Microsoft Paint to edit their productions. This, in my opinon, makes it not viable for a reference in my essay, which I will not be doing, however it is here just to illustrate my point on editing pacing.)



Final Project – Clips/Essay Preperation

From last week, I have laid out my essay in this format:

Screen Shot 2016-02-27 at 02.16.34

I have also got recordings of the following clips and their variations: – snakediver – slow spines – webbing – colour burn – petri dish – exploding box – Lissajous blur – Lissajous blur 2 – slow spines 2 – disco – petri dish 2

Recordings and Issues

At the suggestion of my supervisors, I have used screen recordings to record the different pieces. I went to sit down to edit them earlier this week in one of the rooms in the university, however I was unsure how to transfer them, due to slight human error in not bringing a USB drive. I have decided to use dropbox as a work around, the only downfall is that the upload time can take a while.

I have decided to use these clips as they are most relevant to the audio aspect of the piece, the song used is a slightly ambient themed song, in such the visuals need to appear ambient as well.

Although this mainly covers Generative Art, I am unsure if I want to use stills in this production as I believe it will give off a more amateurish vibe, meaning the likes of Fractal Art might be harder to cover in this production.

Although this is the core of the clips I will be using, I will still try to source more due to the fact that this only is a small generalisation of Code-Based Digital Art, and I would like it to cover a much larger range of pieces.

Essay Research

I have also started on my essay, with the chapter Different Forms of Code-Based Digital Art and their aesthetics which I hope to have completed by next week.

I have also discovered a website that contains research into Generative Art from a lecturer called Philip Galanter who has written both research papers and books about Digital Art.

One of his Papers from 2003 titled “What is Generative Art” offers a suitable definition on Generative Art, amongst an informative overview on subjects such as the complexity involved in Gen Art, the chaos versus order chart and what the artist standpoint should be about.

Examples of Code-Based Digital Art in Video

There is a number of interesting projects that I have also stumbled across, such as CLOUDS by James George, which is and interactive documentary:

“CLOUDS is not a linear film, but a real-time executable which generates sequences of dialogue based on interactive input. Each of the interviews has been edited into individual fragments, and richly tagged. An algorithm then leaps from clip to clip, creating new conversations on the fly, while preserving continuity of ideas and themes. Viewers use gesture and spatial interaction metaphors to chart a course through the rhizomatic content space.”

You can check it out here: CLOUDS by James George

Another Project I have stumbled across is Energy Flow by Field:

“Energy Flow is a non-linear film experience for iOS and Android tablets.

The app weaves 10 animated stories into an interactive, audio-visual experience that is unique every time it is played. The engine behind Energy Flow is a bespoke algorithmic storytelling tool, which arranges a library of video and sound content into ever new narratives.”

I would like to be able to source this material, however I don’t currently own a tablet, but I will attempt to find a work around.

You can check out the trailer for Energy Flow here: Energy Flow

Both of these links are examples of how Code-Based Digital Art can be used in a medium such as Video, and will provide some examples for my upcoming essay.

Final Project – Week 4: Small Demo/Research/Obsticales

For this week, I decided to learn the editing software Jahshaka, however as the interface isn’t exactly user friendly, I had to resort to the internet on tutorials on how to use this program. Unfortunately as I was down home all this week, My internet connection was really slow, making me more stressed and frustrated than was nessicary.

I managed to edit a clip in Jahshaka, however most of the effects that I expected to be there where not the high grade effects I was looking for, along with the fact, that Jahshaka isn’t the most user friendly of software, made it hard to edit clips correctly. This has led to me giving up on this software due to how awkward it is to use. Instead I will be making use of Adobe Premier for both editing and effects.

I managed to edit together a very short demo to show some of my working, however this demo was done in iMovie, due to the fact that I was down home all week, and that I don’t have any other sufficient editing software. iMovie is an extremely basic, yet user friendly editing software, which isn’t too versatile, only allowing two clips to overlap at one point, limiting the editing potential for this project. It can be very tedious to edit in this software, due to the snapping issues, along with the fact, with being used to the likes of Final Cut Pro, Song Vegas and Adobe Premier, this software just isn’t able to compete with them, so I left this demo very short, due to the fact, I didn’t want to waste time doing something tedious that would not be able to compare to what the project would actually be.

One work around could be that, I could export the movie, bring it back into iMovie and chop it up and re-edit it again, however this would become very tedious work, along with making it hard to backtrack if I wanted to change something, meaning I would have to save a lot of different versions of the project, and it would just be a mess.

Another obstacle I encountered, due to the slow internet connection, is that I was only able to get two clips for the demo, as the pages would not load, due to the strain it put on my internet. To put the speed of the internet in perspective, I am unable to upload anything from down home, as the upload speed is roughly 33kb per second, and it cuts out rather frequently, meaning uploads are in vain.  Some of the generative arts requires interaction as well, meaning they are not as useful, however I am going to work on a workaround for these cases.

I have chosen my song for this project, In line with what one of my lecturers has suggested, which was to focus more on the visual aspect of this project, rather than the audio, making use of something creative commons, as I won’t be marked for the sound in this project. Nevertheless, I have picked one of my own song’s for this project, due to the fact that I want this whole project to be my own work.

Link to short project demo.

Link to song (Will be using the mastered version of this for the project, this is to give an idea of genre/tempo of the project)

Along with picking my song, I have found much more reading/research material for this project.


  • In the blink of an eye – Walter Murch
  • Digital Art, 2nd (World of Art) – Thames and Hudson
  • Generative Art – Matt Person
  • A Philosophy of computer art – Dominic Lopes

Artists to research:

  • Matt Person
  • James Proctor
  • Sterling Crispin
  • James George


  • DevArt (Many different kinds of digital based art/code based digital art)
  • (Mainly generative art) (referred to this in my previous post)



Final Project – Week 3. Sourcing/Research

This week I have decided on working on the more visual aspect of my project. As my project is an investigation into the aesthetics of code based digital art, I have currently been researching Generative Art, A visual art form which renews, grows and fades, due to the coding that was used in processing. Some Generative Art is even interactible via keyboard and mouse.

An Example – JS006: Slow Spines by zenbullets

This whole website,, hosts many different kinds of Generative Art, amongst with giving the source code, allowing users to see how the art work was made. This website is pretty ideal for sourcing different pieces of work.

I have also been looking at the work of James Proctor, a digital media artist who produces work based on natures own algorithms, which is pretty interesting. This article demonstrates this along with an interview which he talks about his thought process, and also the coding side of things.

Article with interview with James Proctor

He also has his own website set up, which showcases digital-sketches, animations, GIFs constructed from code etc.

James Proctor Website

Amongst with looking at other artists work, to totally encompass the area of code-based digital art, I have downloaded Jahshaka, which is a video editing software, similar to Adobe After Effects.

From this point on, I will start sourcing and processing the audiovisual composition for this investigation.

Final Project – Week 2. Demos

Although last week I stated I would try to get various pieces of work done, a mixture of illness and my own 23rd birthday has limited my work. However I have managed to complete a few extremely rough demos as song ideas for this week. They are extremely rough in the fact that it literally only is guitar recordings and a very basic drum loop, just as a starting point.

The reason for this process is to give me an option on choosing and expanding an idea that I like the most.

It seem’s like I have also encountered problems with the demos that I have made in my little home recording set-up, in the fact that Logic seems to have lost the audio recording of the guitar, meaning I only have one or two of the demos left, being the dreamy, post rock material. It’s pretty frustrating as I wanted to show my working with examples.

Screen Shot 2016-02-06 at 01.01.30

The image above shows the missing waveform on the second demo.

I tried a number of different of styles, such as a post-rock sort of style with delayed guitars, a jimi-hendrix-esqe style of classic rock and even a metal track. However I have decided to go with the post-rock track, as I believe that not only is it more relevant to this project, but it seems that it has much more potential than the rest of the demos.

Link to demo

It is an extremely rough demo at the moment, and will be considerably expanded on by next week.

Final Project – Week 1. Brief overview and thought process.

So for my final project, I am essentially making a music video with other advanced visual processes and advanced editing. For this week, to form a basis of the actual visual aspect, I first need to write the song and also perform research on different narrative structures. I find that during the process of this project, If I was to create the visuals first, it may be harder to form the music around the visuals rather than the other way about, of course this is just complete opinion on my part.

For this project, I’ll be using:

  • Adobe Premier
  • Logic 9/X(Have a mini home recording set up that is useful for demos and thought processes)
  • DSLR Canon camera, provided by the university.
  • Colour Correction/grading Studio in MD208
  • Studio Two for Mixing/Post-Production

Currently at the moment I am toying around with a few bass riffs that are quite promising, also brainstorming the theme for production. As of this moment I am unsure what the message of the production should be, if it should have an uplifting vibe, or rather a more deep meaningful message. It’s something I will have to sleep on.

As for the video samples that will be edited in, I will begin pre-production next week when I solidify my ideas, and the message I wish to convey.

So for my process for this project, here are the following steps I will take to ensure completion of this project. These are just steps and not the week number that it will be completed in.

  1. Song writing/Research
  2. Pre-production of video parts
  3. Recording of song
  4. Filming
  5. Post-Production/Adding in other aesthetic qualities.
  6. Finished.

As for the other aesthetic qualities that this will entail, it simply is slightly animated pictures that can be added into the project, for example, along with advanced editing this could lead to some interesting developments. However I am going to have a meeting with my supervisor, to discuss the best way to implement this into the project.

As for research materials, I discovered that you can find PDF’s of different books, which saves me a trip to the library. Although I probably will still have to go. For instance: PDF of Story and Discourse.

Google is a lovely search engine.

For next week I plan to have basically all of the pre-production completed, a demo of the song, if possible, and more research completed, with the pre-production taking priority.


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